Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal diseases in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: a multicenter study in France.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Jan;30(1):57-62. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181f13b23.
Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal diseases in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: a multicenter study in France.
Beauté J, Obenga G, Le Mignot L, Mahlaoui N, Bougnoux ME, Mouy R, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Barlogis V, Suarez F, Lanternier F, Hermine O, Lecuit M, Blanche S, Fischer A, Lortholary O; French PID Study Group CEREDIH.
Source

Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France.
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited phagocytic disorder resulting in an increased susceptibility to infections including invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) and inflammatory complications. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence, prevalence, and outcome of IFDs among CGD patients followed in France.
METHODS:

CGD patients were identified through the French national registry for primary immunodeficiencies (PID) held by the French national reference Centre of PID (Centre de Référence Déficits Immunitaires Héréditaires), which comprises a total of 3083 patients including 155 with CGD followed between 1976 and 2008. A questionnaire was filled out for each episode of IFD. Information retrieved included a description of the IFD using the 2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group IFD definition criteria.
RESULTS:

Of CGD patients, 42.6% (66/155) developed at least 1 episode of IFD. Overall incidence of IFD was 0.040/patient-years (1862 patient-years of total follow-up). IFD incidence was found to be significant while receiving itraconazole prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis (0.027 vs. 0.053 IFD/patient-years; P < 0.01). Median age at IFD diagnosis was 6.5 years (3.3-11.3). The most common fungal genus was Aspergillus sp. accounting for 40% of all IFDs. Of the IFDs, 42.5% were proven, 30.0% probable, and 27.5% possible. Of all IFD episodes, 52.5% were treated by antifungal monotherapy, mostly by amphotericin B. Survival was reduced in IFD patients compared with those without it (log-rank 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS:

IFDs are a frequent and life-threatening complication in CGD patients. Itraconazole significantly reduces its incidence and should be recommended in absence of better alternatives.

Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

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