Clinical Features, Non-Infectious Manifestations and Survival Analysis of 161 Children with Primary Immunodeficiency in Mexico: A Single Center Experience Over two Decades.

J Clin Immunol. 2016 Jan;36(1):56-65. doi: 10.1007/s10875-015-0226-5. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
Cruz Hernández A2, España-Cabrera C2, Espinosa-Padilla SE3, Espinosa-Rosales FJ3,2, Hernandez-Lopez CA3, Lugo Reyes SO1, Medina-Torres EA3, Murata C4, Ramirez-Lopez AB3, Ramirez-Vazquez G2, Yamazaki-Nakashimada MA2.

Author information

  • 1Immunodeficiencies Research Unit, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • 2Clinical Immunology Department, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • 3Immunodeficiencies Research Unit, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, Mexico.
  • 4Research Methodology Department, National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, Mexico.



The hallmark of Primary immunodeficiencies (PI) is unusual infection, although other immunological non-infectious manifestations such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer are often present. Most published reports focus on one disease or defect groups, so that a global prevalence of non-infectious manifestations of PI is hard to find. We aimed to describe the clinical features of our pediatric patients with PI, as well as the frequency and evolution of allergy, cancer and autoimmunity.


We reviewed all the available charts of patients being followed for PI from 1991 to the spring of 2012 at the National Institute of Pediatrics, Mexico City, to describe their demographic, clinical and laboratory features. Their diagnoses were established by pediatric immunologists in accordance to ESID criteria, including routine immunological workup and specialized diagnostic assays. We divided patients by decade of diagnosis to analyze their survival curves.


There were 168 charts available, from which we excluded one duplicate and six equivocal diagnoses. We studied the charts of 161 PI patients (68 % male, 86 % alive), mostly from the center of the country, with a positive family history in 27 % and known consanguinity in 11 %. Eighty percent of the patients were diagnosed during the last decade. Current median age was 124 months; median age at onset of infections, 12 months; median age at diagnosis, 52 months; median age at death, 67.5 months. Severe infection and bleeding were the cause of 22 deaths. Eighty-six percent of all patients had at least one infection, while non-infectious manifestations had a global prevalence of 36 %, namely: autoimmunity 19 %, allergies 17 %, and cancer 2.4 %. Survival curves were not significantly different when compared by decade of diagnosis.


Compared to other registry reports, we found a lower prevalence of antibody defects, and of associated allergy and cancer. We could only locate two isolated IgA deficiencies and four cases of cancer among our PI patients. Although antibody defects are the most prevalent group (30 %), the distribution we found is similar to that reported in Iran, Kuwait, Egypt and Taiwan, with a close 27 % share for phagocyte defects, and 26 % for the formerly called "well-defined" syndromes. Of note, autoimmune and inflammatory complications are high among our patients with chronic granulomatous disease, as has been reported in both the United States and Japan, but not in Europe.

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