A randomized prospective study on the use of 2 g-IVIG or 1 g-IVIG as therapy for Kawasaki disease.

Eur J Pediatr. 2006 Nov 14

Sakata K, Hamaoka K, Ozawa SI, Niboshi A, Yoshihara T, Nishiki T, Nakagawa Y, Kazuta K, Morimoto Y, Kamiya Y, Yamamoto T, Horii Y, Kido S.

Pediatric Cardiology and Nephrology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 465 Kajiicho, Kyoto, 602-8586, Japan,

A single, 2 g/kg dose of immune globulin (IG), denoted 2 g-intravenous (IV)IG, has become a standard regimen for treating Kawasaki disease (KD) because of its highly preventive effect on coronary arterial lesions (CAL). However, IG is obtained from blood specimens, a drawback to many patients, and is also very expensive.

This randomized prospective study reported here was carried out with the aim of developing a treatment regimen that would reduce the total dose of IG. The study tested two protocols (A: 2 g-IVIG; B: 1 g-IVIG) that included the strategy of administering additional IVIG to IVIG-resistant patients based on the criteria we described previously. In protocol A, an additional 2 g-IVIG was administered only once; in protocol B, the first additional IVIG was 1 g-IVIG and the second was 2 g-IVIG. One hundred and nine patients who were admitted before the seventh day of illness and had no CAL at the time of admission were enrolled in the study (protocol A: 54 patients; B: 55 patients). In the protocol A group, 7.4% (4/54) of the patients received 4 g/kg IG. In protocol B, 41.8% (23/55) were treated only with 1 g/kg IG, and 10.9% (6/55) received 4 g/kg IG. No significant differences were observed between the patients of the two subgroups receiving 4 g/kg IG in each protocol group. Discriminate analysis also suggested that 52.4% of the patients in the protocol A group could be treated only with 1 g/kg IG. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of aneurysms between patients in the protocol A group (1/54) and those in the protocol B group (4/55). Our protocol based on 1 g-IVIG, including additional IVIG, was assessed to be an effective treatment and to provide a considerably useful means to reduce the total dose of IG.

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